General Explanations About Paint Applications
A liquid or powder product that contains pigments that protect the surface and give a decorative appearance or form a covering layer, and which is applied to the surface in thin layers, is called “paint”. Chemical substances contained in paints can be divided into 4 main groups: Binders, solvents, pigments and fillers, additives.
Binders: Chemical substances that give the paint protection, adhesion, hardness, flexibility, physical and chemical resistance properties.
Solvents: Chemical substances that make up the volatile part of the paint. They are used to provide fluidity during production and ease of application.
Pigments and extents (fillers): Gives the paint its color and provides coverage.
Additives: It is used to improve some of the properties of the paint and to prevent unwanted negative changes. For example, heaters, anti-settling agents, thickeners, mildew inhibitors, UV-resistant ones, etc.
It is possible to classify paints according to their usage areas or solvents.
According to the places of use:
֍ Paints used in interior and wall surfaces.
֍ Paints used on exterior and wall surfaces.
֍ Paints used on wooden surfaces
֍ Paints used on metal surfaces.
According to their solvents:
֍ Water based paints.
֍ Solvent based paints. (synthetic based)
All paints are named for the type of binders found in their structure. For example, the binder of acrylic-based paint is acrylic, while the binder of synthetic-based paint is alkyd. In paints developed for interior wall surfaces, the choice should be made primarily according to the solvent of the paint. Water-based paints and synthetic-based paints have differences in terms of their properties and performances. Although water-based paints have breathing properties, synthetic-based (satin, etc.) paints do not have this feature. However, water-based paints are much more resistant to the alkaline effect (with moisture) formed on the wall.
Synthetic-based paints have much higher wiping resistance than water-based paints. However, there is a risk of yellowing of these types of paints. After the synthetic and water-based choice is made, the image preference will appear. This in water-based paints; matte and semi-matte, and in synthetic-based paints, it appears as matte, semi-matte (satin) and glossy.
In water-based paints, those with a matte appearance are generally separated from each other as PVA-based, acrylic copolymer-based or acrylic-based. Glossy synthetic paints, on the other hand, are not very common to be used on walls due to their excessive reflection of light. They are generally used on wooden doors, windows and metals with suitable primers. In order to achieve what is desired in all paints, the surface must be prepared for paint and a primer must be used.
Paints and coatings can be used on the exterior.
The dyes leave a fine and rough texture, while the coatings create a more grainy texture.
There are three types of paints and coatings used in exterior, water and solvent based and silicone.
Silicone paints that are used on the exterior and are highly resistant to moisture are named this way because their binders that allow them to adhere to the surface contain silicon.
Wood has many enemies.
These are woodworms, fungi, and the sun.
Protection of wood against these factors is possible with wood preservatives that contain poison effective against fungi and woodworms, but are harmless to human health.
While these products protect the wood thanks to the poison in their structure, they prevent the wood from absorbing water thanks to the binder it contains.
HOW SHOULD QUALITY PAINT BE?
The properties sought in a quality paint can be listed as follows;
֍ Covering (covering, finishing work in 2 floors).
֍ Easy to apply (good results with brush, roller or trowel) l Resistant to physical effects (rubbing, scratching, wiping, etc.).
֍ Resistance to chemical effects (soap, oil, detergent, etc.) l Resistance to atmospheric conditions and special conditions (cold, heat, rain, sun, etc.).
֍ Being decorative (color, gloss, dullness, etc.).
If you are going to make the paint yourself, you have to follow the correct sequence to get a good result. The first stage is the preparation of the surface. If there are swollen paint and paste residues on the surface to be painted, you should definitely scrape it off and make the surface smooth. In order for the paint to bond to the surface and to be applied easily, you should remember that the surface must be solidified, free from all kinds of dirt, oil, dust and residues, dry and clean before priming. If necessary on the surface to be painted, a homogeneous image is provided with sandpaper after the surface correction processes (plaster, satin plaster, putty) are completed. After the sanding dust is removed from the surface, the primer application is made in two layers. For puttying to be applied between two priming processes, the surface must have the properties we have listed. Wait at least 3-4 hours between coats, and start painting after 24 hours. It is one of the most correct painting methods to apply two layers at the intervals specified in the paint application instructions in order to give a decorative appearance during the application of the final paint.
Apart from the things you need to pay attention to during painting, the tools you will use also play an important role in achieving a good result.
֍ Brush: The bristles of the brush should be hard enough to drag the paint and at the same time elastic enough to provide a soft friction. The broken or broken bristles of the brush must be cleaned and the dust must be removed. It is wrong to clean the brush by twisting, washing and shaking. Brush dimensions are specified in inches. 1/2, 1 and 1 1/2 inch brushes are used for door and window joinery, and 2 and 3 inch brushes are used for walls.
֍ Spatula: Used for scraping old paints on the surface and applying paste to the surface.
֍ Sandpaper: There are two types of sandpaper to be used on iron and wood. In numbered papers, 0 indicates the thinnest paper and 4 indicates the thickest paper type. Number 3 and number 4 are used for surface preparation, number 1 for primer application, number 0 for paint, and number 2 for putty sanding.
֍ Roll: Rolls are used on ceilings and similar large surfaces. The use of roller can shorten the painting time, and if the excess paint is not taken with suitable roller trays, it can make the application difficult.
How should leftover dyes be stored?
According to the type of paint left over; It can be stored for a long time by adding water (if it is water-based (so that the paint inside the container does not contact with the air) or solvent-based.
What are the results if the paint is thinned more than the given ratios?
The hiding power of the paint and its ability to adhere to the applied surface decreases.
This reduces the protection and decorative function that the paint has to do.
At what rate should the paints be thinned?
It should be diluted in the proportions written on the packaging and in the technical bulletins.
Each paint has a different thinning rate.
In addition, the thinning rate varies according to the properties of the application tool to be used.
Does the paint have the feature of being flammable?
Water-based paints are not flammable. Solvent-based paints are flammable and combustible.
How should dyes be stored?
Used paints should be stored in completely closed containers, unopened packaging, without moisture, at room temperature and on pallets (to prevent contact with the floor).
How to get rid of stained and sooty surfaces by painting?
Oil, soot, pencil, burn marks, soot, etc. Any painting process cannot provide sufficient performance to remove such stains. After a while, all stains cause vomiting. Therefore, before painting, an action must be taken to prevent these stains from bleeding again.
Why is it not recommended to paint under direct sunlight?
Paints have to stay wet for a while after application in order to ensure proper processing and adhesion. The heat of direct sunlight causes the outermost layer of the paint to dry before it has completed its maturation. This causes bubbles to appear on the paint.
What is the disadvantage of applying paint in very hot weather?
The paint dries in very hot weather before it can adhere and penetrate the surface. This results in peeling and blistering of the paint.
Why cracks occur on a newly painted surface?
The most important reason for these cracks is the application of an unnecessarily thick paint layer. The layer on the surface dries faster and the lower layers take longer to dry. The lower floors shrink when dry, which causes cracks in the upper floor. In addition, if the surface on which the paint is applied is not well cleaned, this may be a reason.
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