In parallel with technological developments, the power and capabilities of weapons and weapon systems have also increased today. As a natural consequence of this, concepts such as front and border have completely disappeared, and the whole country and civilian people have been attacked
In addition to the precautions and other measures to be taken by the Armed Forces, the construction of shelters should also be given importance. Otherwise, it is natural that there will be more loss of life and property. However, in order to achieve the expected benefit from the shelters, the following three important principles must be considered before building the shelter:
֍ Determining the place to be sheltered well.
֍ Pre-planning of refuge beneficiaries.
֍ The shelter to be built can be used for other purposes.
PURPOSE OF MAKING SHELTER
֍ To minimize the loss of life and property,
֍ To provide deterrence by giving the image of being prepared,
֍ Creating collective protection at a low cost.
DEFINITION OF REFUGE
The places of protection built with nuclear, classical and modern weapons, the effects of biological and chemical warfare materials, and to protect the living and non-living values necessary for the survival of people and the continuation of the war power of the country are called shelters.
Regarding shelters, prepared by the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement and the Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency in accordance with the Article 12 / e of the Decree No. There is a “Shelter Regulation”. The administrations that issue the building license and occupancy permit are authorized and responsible for the implementation of this Regulation. Supervision authority of governorships and metropolitan municipalities is reserved when necessary. In the implementation of the Regulation, the written opinion of the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement and the Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency on other issues are taken for the issues such as plans, projects, building permits, construction, building permits and floor ownership.
Shelters by Purpose of Use
They are shelters built to protect against the effects of classical and modern weapons, chemical and biological warfare agents with the sudden (light, heat, pressure and first radiation) and residual (radioactive fallout) effects of nuclear weapons.
They are shelters built to protect against the radioactive fallout effects of nuclear weapons. These shelters; They also provide protection against chemical and biological warfare agents, the weakened pressure and heat effects of nuclear weapons, and the fragmentation effects of classical and modern weapons.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPRAY SHELTERS
At least 1 square meter space per person is allocated in fallout shelters. Internal height cannot be less than 2.40 meters (2 meters 40 centimeters).
The wall thickness of the sprinkler shelters should be at least 60 cm concrete, 75 cm brick or stone, or 90 cm compressed soil or other equivalent material.
The entrance to the shelter should have an iron door and at least one right angle turn.
Regardless of the type of shelter, it should be sufficient with both mechanical and natural ventilation, natural ventilation should be provided with grilles and mechanical ventilation air conditioning. A filter system that prevents the ingress of radioactive fallout and chemical gases should be used in the ventilation.
If possible, toilet bowls should be connected to the sewer and toilet-type toilet should be used. Food residues should be collected in sealed containers in plastic bags.
MEASURES TO BE TAKEN IN THE REFUGE
֍ How and who will benefit from the shelters should be determined in advance.
֍ There should be a lighting system that can work without disturbing the air of the shelter.
֍ Unnecessary items should not be placed in shelters.
֍ External communication equipment should be provided.
֍ Necessary precautions should be taken against fires.
֍ Gas stove should be preferred for cooking meals and should be used when necessary in order not to reduce oxygen.
֍ There should be 1 WC, 1 urinal, 1 washbasin for every 60 men, 1 WC and 1 washbasin for every 40 women. Sealed containers and plastic bags should be used for disposing of wastes.
֍ Double or even triple bunk beds should be put to sleep, and these bunk beds should be used for sitting.
֍ When entering the shelter, sufficient amount of food and health items and necessary tools and equipment should not be forgotten.
֍ When coming from contaminated land, necessary cleaning should be done before entering the shelter.
What has been explained up to now contains the necessary information about the shelters built in regular sizes. Although shelter construction is a legal obligation in the zoning regulations regulated in accordance with the Zoning Law No. 3194, it is necessary to take more practical measures in the face of any danger due to the current building stocks in our country. We can use some parts of our homes or workplaces that do not have shelters as shelters. The Following Features Are Sought In The Refuge;
֍ The shelters should have the materials that should be found in the shelter.
֍ It is natural that the place to be chosen as a shelter will not be as protective as the shelter.
֍ Shelters to be used against chemical warfare materials should be selected on the upper floors and places with few windows, windows and door openings should be covered with putty, tape or cloth soaked in bleach to prevent gas ingress.
֍ The shelters to be used against classical and nuclear weapons should be chosen on the curb floors, if possible, from places with low ceilings and walls, and their doors and windows should be reinforced with sandbags.
֍ However, efforts should be made to ensure that this place to be chosen has the characteristics of the shelter as much as possible.
MATERIALS REQUIRED IN THE REFUGE
It may be necessary to stay in the shelter for a certain period of time in order to pass the effect of radioactive fallout or chemical gas outside. For this reason, the life in the shelter should be organized according to all needs and the following materials and measures should be taken;
֍ According to the season, personal clothing, cleaning and toiletries,
֍ Bedding material, “Foods to last a few days, water to drink and use, bucket, plate, glass, spoon, fork, etc.
֍ Lighting material; ship’s light, flashlight and spare batteries, etc.
֍ Gas stove for cooking,
֍ Heating system,
֍ Closed garbage bin to put garbage,
֍ Sanitary equipment, first aid kit and necessary medicines, Simple tools and repair kit,
֍ Battery-operated radio and spare batteries, clock,
֍ Book etc. some entertainment supplies,
֍ Simple radiation measuring instrument if possible. Care should be taken to keep food, drink and health, fire extinguishing tools and equipment for a few days in shelters or shelters to be equipped in the building or workplace where the people live. Care should be taken that beverages are kept in closed containers, food in canned form, and health care products in their original containers or boxes.
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