What Is The Shelter For?
Shelters are being tested for protection places built with nuclear and conventional weapons, from the effects of biological and chemical warfare materials and natural disasters, to protect the living and non-living assets necessary for the survival of people and the continuation of the country’s war power. The shelter regulation was published in the Official Gazette No. 19910 on August 25, 1988; The regulation regulates the procedures and principles regarding the type, feature, construction, use and protection of the shelters.
Features and construction of fallout shelters The following points are followed in the construction of fallout shelters, which are one of the special shelters.
a) Size: At least one net square meter of shelter is allocated per person. Wc, shower and kitchen niche to be built in the shelters are not included in this area. The number of people for each independent section is considered as two in one-room residences, three in two-bedroom residences, and four in residences with three or more rooms. In permanent or temporary accommodation facilities such as dormitories, wards, guesthouses, dormitories, nursing homes, hotels, pensions and inpatient health facilities, it is found by increasing the number of beds determined in the approved architectural project by twenty percent. In other buildings and facilities or in independent sections or spaces that do not contain residences and permanent or temporary accommodation, the number of persons is the number obtained by dividing the area subject to equivalent by 20. In buildings where different uses are together, the shelter calculation of each independent section or space with different uses is made separately. As a result of the collection of shelter areas required by independent sections or spaces, the necessary shelter area is found for the entire building.
Workshops, sports, conference, show and exhibition halls, which are among the areas subject to reference, are not taken into account in the calculation of the number of persons subject to shelter account in education facilities.
Shelter account for the production or function related structures, departments or units of agricultural and livestock facilities such as fattening houses, poultry farms, greenhouses and all kinds of manufacturing and industrial facilities, according to the maximum number of personnel who will work simultaneously in one shift.
The shelter area cannot be determined under a net nine square meters except for the wc, shower and kitchen niche. In the fallout shelters, a separate WC and lavatory place is reserved for each hundred people, male and female. If the remaining fraction is more than fifty, a separate WC and washbasin place for men and women are added. If the fraction is less than 50, no addition is made.
In the calculation of the number of people, the architectural project attached to the building license is taken as basis. However, the number of people is determined according to the plan decision in the facilities where the number of beds is determined by the approved implementation development plan. Matters related to shelters, including the number of people, the size and other information about the walls and ceiling floors of the shelter outside the building, must be shown in the architectural and mechanical installation projects. The inner height of shelters cannot be less than 2.40 meters net..
b) Thickness of the outer wall of the building surrounding the shelter: The thickness of the wall and ceiling floor covering outside the building of the shelter is at least 60 cm. concrete, 75cm. brick or stone or 90cm. must be of compacted soil. These materials can be used alone or they can be used together considering the ratio of these measures to each other in terms of radiation permeability. In addition, building materials other than these can be used together or alone by calculating their dimensions by considering their permeability and protection coefficients against radioactive fallout. The thickness of the outer walls of the shelter, which is completely under the ground and at least 60 cm of earth fill with the external open environment, is determined according to static calculations. The same is applied in shelters to be built in the garden.
c) Entry place: The entrance of the shelter should have an iron door and at least one right angle turn. In shelters with a net area of more than 100 square meters, excluding wc, shower and kitchen niche, two exits must be provided.
d) Ventilation: Regardless of the type of shelter, mechanical ventilation is required. The air taken from outside during protection times is passed through the filtering system such as nuclear type hepa filter, sandbox, and given into the shelter to be attached in case of threat. In times of peace, the air taken from outside is only passed through a G4 type coarse filter and given into the shelter.
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